How to guides

The 'How To' series is a set of articles aimed at busy clinicians.

How to flyers

Produced by the Academic Section of Medical Education within the Deanery, the series provides a comprehensive overview of a range of educational topics in a readily accessible format. Our 'Deanery update' issues detail the various central support facilities available within the Deanery.

Suggestions for other topics, offers to write articles or to write collaboratively with the Series Editor, Dr Michal Tombs, will be welcomed.

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Author: John Bligh and Julie Browne
All doctors are involved in medical education, some in a variety of roles: but it’s easy to overlook how much they do and how skilful and demanding it can be. Many would like to develop their...
Author: Mike Johnson
As you may be aware, a great deal of educational material is freely available on the Internet. As with choosing a single course textbook, or any other learning resource, it can be difficult to find...
Author: Majid Jalil and Stephen Brigley
Increasing numbers of refugee doctors have entered the UK in recent years. Besides having to pass Professional Linguistics Assessment Board (PLAB) exams, many of them experience professional,...
Author: Lesley Pugsley
Historically in medical education, knowledge and skills have been ‘acquired’ over time through the apprenticeship process. Much of what was formally taught within the university setting was delivered...
Author: Harish Thampy
The concept of learning needs stems from adult learning theory. Through a process of reflection, the learner identifies deficiencies in knowledge or skills with the aim of meeting these needs through...
Author: Lesley Pugsley
As a busy health care practitioner with a desire to maintain and update professional skills and knowledge, perhaps the study skills you acquired as an undergraduate may need to be updated and refined...
Author: Mark Stacey, Paul Kirk and Peter Donnelly
Rapid developments in technology enhanced learning, coupled with evolving learner behaviours, require organisations to continuously evaluate their approaches to teaching & learning in both the...
Author: John Pitts
Portfolios have been much discussed in recent years both as a learning and assessment tool. The use of educational portfolios and learning journals in medical education is growing. From initial...
Author: Zareena Jedaar, Ceri Marrin - with Lesley Pugsley
Traditional approaches to training such as the apprenticeship model are no longer appropriate for learning in medicine. Challenges such as the recent training and healthcare reforms, which include...
Author: Simon Smail, Tom Hayes and Lesley Pugsley
Within both primary and secondary care settings there are a variety of educational activities and opportunities, both formal and informal, occurring on a regular basis.
Author: Sarah Al-Amodi, Suzanna Mathew,Judith Fox,Ramsey Sabit, Anna Patricolo
Team work is central to all of our work as medical professionals. Increasingly we are called to be part of national and international teams to complete tasks such as planning educational...
Author: Peter Donnelly and Joel Benson
There has been an unprecedented growth in the availability of E-learning opportunities provided by various institutions. How does a doctor in training in particular know which sites are quality...
Author: Lynne Allery
The Mini-CEX is one assessment approach currently being utilised as part of the Modernising Medical Careers programme. Originally developed by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM), the mini...
Author: Joe Campbell & Steffi Williams
There are simple but important reasons for appraising staff and giving them feedback on their performance: trainees should know what they are supposed to do and how well they are doing it.
Author: Kim Carter, Jill Edwards, Imam Mohammad, Irnei Myemba, John Rees, Martin Sullivan (with Lesley Pugsley)
With a shortening of specialist training, precipitated by Calman and the European Working Time Directive, there has been a significant reduction in training time overall and therefore a need to...
Author: Howard L Young
Trainees want to know how well they are progressing and the appraisal meetings are a way of formalising this process.
Author: Trevor Austin
The introduction of re-validation presents additional challenges and opportunities for doctors appraising the work of other doctors, making appraisals more significant and demanding than ever.
Author: Stephen Brigley
Training posts in primary care or hospital practice settings provide rich learning opportunities for trainees. Trainees will appreciate and benefit from support for their learning in the clinical...
Author: Peter Donnelly and Paul Kirk
Receiving constructive feedback is an essential element to learning. It enables the learner to raise the level of their awareness in relation to their strengths and can highlight the areas of their...
Author: Glyn Elwyn
It may be difficult to acquire expertise in critically reading primary research papers, for several reasons. Time pressures deter access to papers that seem over long or complex, and often trainees (...
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